Roof Repair – Things You Shouldn’t Do Yourself

Attempting roof repair during a whirlwind (or even a tornado) or severe storm is not a good idea. It’s not safe, and there is a higher chance that the surrounding area will be impacted.

Examine your roof for apparent damage, such as missing shingles. Look for dripping water, water stains or soft spots in the ceiling. Visit to learn more.

Over time, shingles or tiles may become damaged due to weather events or just normal wear and tear. Damaged shingles can lead to leaks and other roofing problems, so it’s important to replace them as soon as possible. Replacing shingles can also improve the look of the roof and reduce future repair costs.

A common cause of shingle damage is hail, which can punch holes in the shingles. Heavy winds can also lift shingles, leaving them vulnerable to further damage. Inspect the shingles after significant weather events to see if any need to be replaced.

Shingles are made from a composite asphalt that’s durable and attractive, but they can be vulnerable to wind and sun exposure. Over time, shingles can detach or crack, and moisture can seep under the shingles and into the roof sheathing. Replacing shingles is an inexpensive and easy way to update the look of the roof, and it will also help protect the rest of the roof from moisture.

Begin by removing any nails that are sticking out of the sheathing underneath the damaged shingle. Then, slide a flat pry bar underneath the shingle to break the seal with the shingle above it without tearing up any undamaged shingles. Lift the tabs of the shingle to expose the nails, and then remove them with a hammer claw or utility knife. After removing the nails, pull off the damaged shingle and install a replacement 3-tab shingle in its place. Nail the new shingle down with four roofing nails, making sure to nail into the nail strip.

Use a ladder to get on the roof and inspect it for damaged or missing shingles. If you notice any shingles that are curled, cracked, or lifting up, it’s important to have them replaced as soon as possible. These exposed areas don’t offer any protection from rain and other elements, so they’re a serious threat to the integrity of the roof. In addition, the moisture that gets into the underlayment of the roof can cause rot and other costly problems. If the shingles are missing chunks completely, they should be replaced as well, since these naked spots don’t provide any barrier against the elements.

Built-Up Roofing (BUR)

Built-up roofing (BUR) is a time-tested and highly effective system that can provide a long life for commercial buildings. However, like all roofs, BUR systems aren’t immune to issues that may require repair.

While BUR systems can be more expensive than some other roofing options, they also have a number of positive benefits. For example, their durability means that they can withstand much more damage than other roofing materials, which reduces maintenance costs over the years. Plus, the multiple layers of protection on a BUR system make it more resistant to weather, heat and fire, helping to protect building interiors.

Another advantage of BUR is its energy efficiency. Modern BUR roofs can integrate a layer of rigid insulation, which can help to cut energy costs by keeping the building warmer in winter and cooler in summer. Additionally, the use of white-coated cap sheets can reflect the sun’s rays, further reducing the amount of heat that is transferred into the building.

When repairing a BUR roof, it’s important to understand how the system is constructed. One of the most common surfacing options is called a flood coat and gravel, which involves pouring a hot adhesive that’s then topped with a layer of gravel to help it adhere. This type of surfacing can be more difficult to find leaks in than other options, and it’s not uncommon for water to seep under the gravel, rather than through the underlying roof membrane.

To repair a BUR roof, it’s necessary to remove any contaminated or loose material from the surface of the existing roof. Then, a patch can be installed to ensure the membrane is watertight. For best results, the patch should extend a minimum of 450 mm (18 in) beyond the defect to ensure proper adhesion.

While BUR is a durable system that can last for decades, it’s still important to perform regular inspections and make repairs as needed. This can help to avoid costly leaks and extend the lifespan of the roof even further.


The flashing on your roof is designed to keep water from seeping into walls, pipes, chimneys, windows and doors. It also encourages rain to drain off the roof faster. However, if your flashing is damaged, it can cause major issues like leaks and mold. Flashing is made of a thin sheet of impervious metal that is installed at joints or other points where two materials meet. It can be made of copper, galvanized steel, lead or aluminum.

If you’re looking to repair your flashing, it’s best to hire a qualified roofing contractor. Attempting to repair it yourself can cause more damage and pose health and safety risks. A professional will be able to identify and repair any issues with your flashing quickly and efficiently.

Flashing is used around objects on your roof such as vents, skylights and chimneys, as well as at the eaves and rakes to help direct water into gutters. It can be either exposed or embedded. Exposed flashing is usually made of a metal like copper or aluminum, while embedded flashing is often made of masonry such as mortar or concrete.

While flashing is designed to withstand the elements, it can become damaged over time due to wear and tear or even corrosion. In these cases, a professional roofer will need to remove the affected area of your roof and replace it with a new piece of flashing.

When replacing flashing, it’s important that you use the same material as the original so that the replacement will be durable and look good. You should also use a liberal coating of roof cement to ensure that the flashing is completely sealed and secure.

In addition to being a health and safety risk, damaged roof flashing can lead to serious structural damage to your home. If left unrepaired, water can seep into your ceilings and walls causing rot and mold. To prevent this, it’s important to check your flashing regularly and have it repaired as soon as you notice any signs of damage. This will help to protect your home from expensive water damage and expensive repairs.


Gutters are essential for catching rain runoff and channeling it away from the foundation of your home. Clogged or damaged gutters allow water to spill over the sides and pool around the foundation, creating hydrostatic pressure that can cause damage. It’s important to inspect and maintain your gutter system on a regular basis to keep it functioning properly.

Sagging gutters are often caused by the accumulation of debris or loose hardware. The weight of standing water also tends to pull down on gutter spikes or nails that hold the gutters. If you can still see the original holes for nails or screws holding the gutter, it’s usually possible to reattach them. But it’s always a good idea to remove the gutter and clean it while you’re at it, so that you can check for any damage or potential problems that may need to be addressed.

The best way to repair leaking gutters is to cover them with roof and gutter repair tape (available at most home centers and hardware stores). If your gutters are rusty or heavily coated in caulk or tar, scrape the area thoroughly before applying the tape. You may also want to wire-brush the metal surface to get rid of any remaining rust spots or open caulk and paint.

Once the gutter is clean and dry, apply the tape to both the inside and outside of the gutter joint and along any seams. Work the tape firmly into curves and corners. Overlap long seams by at least 1 in. and end seams by 4 in. Leaks can also be repaired by sealing the joints with roofing silicone.

If you have a gutter with a single downspout, you’ll need to install a downspout extension that connects the gutter to the house. This will prevent water from flowing over the top of the gutter and causing damage to your fascia board or crawl space.

Keeping your gutters in good working order will protect your home from structural damage and costly repairs. Regular inspections and maintenance are all it takes to extend their life and ensure that your gutters do the job they’re designed to do: catch rain runoff, drain it away from the foundation of your home and protect the landscaping.

What Is Plumbing?

Plumbing is a system of pipes and fixtures that conveys water for many uses. It includes the distribution of potable water and the removal of waste.

A plumbing diagram illustrates a house’s pipes and drains. You can easily draw a plumbing plan using the official symbols that Edraw Max supports. For more information, click the Learn More to proceed.

Pipes are the foundation of any piping system. They’re the tubes that convey fluids, whether it be fresh water into a home or waste water out to the sewer system. They can be made of a variety of materials depending on the application, but are always hollow and cylindrical with one or more ports at either end.

For example, copper pipes can withstand high amounts of pressure and are usually found running through walls to transfer water from fixtures or from the main line into a home. On the other hand, plastic pipes like PVC can also withstand high water pressure and are commonly used in residential plumbing applications such as fixture drain lines or water supply lines.

Other types of pipes include ductile iron, galvanized steel and concrete. Cast iron is often used in industrial settings as well as for water and wastewater pipes because of its ability to withstand corrosion. PVC is commonly found in homes and can handle both hot and cold temperatures and is durable enough for outdoor use.

Plastic pipes are extruded and can be fabricated in one of three forms. Solid wall piping uses a single material to form the entire cylinder, while structural wall piping alters the extruded tube’s shape to produce desirable characteristics such as increased load-bearing capability, which is common in corrugated pipe. Barrier pipe utilizes lining materials to increase the pipe’s resistance to incursion, which is useful for pipes that carry corrosive fluids.

Couplings are another type of pipe fitting that connects two pipes together. They come in different sizes and can be fabricated from a variety of materials including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS plastic), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) as well as copper. Couplings can be designed as regular couplings or slip couplings. A regular coupling has a small ridge or stop internally that prevents the over-insertion of one pipe segment into the other, which would create an unreliable connection.


Fittings manipulate the conveyance of fluids (water for potable and irrigational uses, gases, oil, waste, liquid or gaseous chemicals) in plumbing systems. They are designed to be compatible with the piping system materials, the fluids being transported, the temperature and pressure within the system, and other environmental factors. The bodies of fittings are typically made of the same base material as the pipe or tubing being connected to them. They are also rated for their fire resistance, earthquake resilience, mechanical ruggedness and theft-resistance.

Fittings can be classified as either flanged or sweated. Flanged fittings have sealant on the inside of the flange that makes contact with the pipe or tubing, creating a watertight connection without the need for soldering. Sweated fittings have a threaded hole on one end that can be screwed into a corresponding thread on the other end of the pipe or tubing. Sweated fittings are more common in residential drain and sewer piping systems than flanged fittings, because they can be easily removed for cleaning and maintenance.

A reducer, on the other hand, decreases the size of a pipe or tube from a larger to a smaller diameter. This change may be required to meet hydraulic flow requirements or to accommodate different piping system materials. A reducer’s body is usually concentric and designed to maintain the center of gravity of the reduced section of piping.

Other common fittings include tees, cross-shaped and elbows. They are used to connect pipes of varying sizes and angles. They also allow hoses, nozzles and other components to be easily attached to the core piping system, if they have the correct ends. Adapters, which bridge between different standard measurements, are also used. Examples of these are T-shaped and cross-shaped adapters that connect ORB ends to JIC ends, or simple two-ended components that lead male-to-male connections. Cleanouts, which are essential for drain maintenance and clearing, are also common. These are often located at the end of every branch in a drain and sewer system, at the bottom of each plumbing fixture stack and outside the building.


From toilets and showers to sinks and bathtubs, plumbing fixtures play a crucial role in the comfort and functionality of living spaces. They are a key part of hygiene and sanitation, and their design directly impacts water usage and utility costs. For these reasons, it is important to understand the different types and functions of plumbing fixtures before installing, upgrading or replacing them.

Essentially, plumbing fixtures are devices that receive waste and freshwater from pipes and direct them into sanitary drainage systems. They are typically installed on the walls or floors of living and working spaces, so they are easily accessed for maintenance, repair or replacement. They are also usually designed for long-term use and exposed to frequent contact with water, so they are often made of durable materials such as porcelain, fiberglass, marble, copper and stainless steel. They may be equipped with drains, faucets, shower heads or stoppers, depending on the type of fixture.

There are many things to consider when choosing plumbing fixtures, including ease of use and maintenance, material durability and aesthetics. Additionally, it is a good idea to look for fixtures that are low-flow or energy-efficient, as these will help to reduce water consumption and utility bills.

As a newcomer to the plumbing industry, it can be challenging to grasp all of the various terms and concepts that are associated with pipes, fittings and fixtures. However, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of these fundamental aspects of plumbing in order to provide efficient and reliable services to clients. To assist with this, we have compiled a guide to the different types of fixtures and their associated functions. Here, we will take a closer look at the difference between fixtures and fittings, as well as the most common types of plumbing fixtures.


Plumbing comprises a network of pipes, fixtures, and valves that transport fluids (typically water) to and from various fixtures within buildings or structures. Plumbers install, repair, and maintain these systems to ensure they function properly. This is an important job because it ensures that people have access to clean drinking water and can remove waste in a safe manner.

The plumbing industry is regulated in most countries to ensure the safety of citizens and the environment. Plumbers must adhere to strict building codes when installing or repairing plumbing fixtures. For example, the National Building Code of Canada specifies standards for plumbing materials and fittings. Individual provinces or territories may also have their own regulations. These regulations typically specify minimum pipe sizes and wall thicknesses, along with the maximum pressure ratings for different components.

In addition to ensuring that pipes are installed correctly, plumbers must ensure the correct fittings are used. This is particularly important for sanitary plumbing systems, where cross-contamination can be very dangerous. In many cases, the right fitting can reduce or even eliminate problems associated with mismatched or outdated parts. For instance, modern PEX tubing has gained popularity because it is easier to work with than traditional copper piping and can withstand a higher temperature range.

Other important factors to consider when choosing fittings include cost, material quality, and durability. For instance, some fittings may be more difficult to work with than others, such as those that require soldering. In these cases, it is crucial to find a skilled plumber with experience working with these types of fittings. Similarly, it is important to choose the right tools for the job. For example, using a pipe-fitting finder can help ensure that the outside diameter of the pipe is measured accurately, which can prevent mismatched fittings and other issues.


Plumbing is a complex system that transports fluids, primarily water, in and out of buildings and structures. It involves pipes, fixtures, and fittings that supply clean water and remove wastewater. It is a vital infrastructure that supports sanitary conditions, food production, and other essential functions. Proper maintenance is necessary to ensure a smooth operation of this system. Regular inspections can identify issues and help prevent them from escalating into expensive repairs. In addition, plumbing maintenance can include modernizing pipes and fixtures to improve efficiency and reduce costs.

A reliable plumbing service can inspect, repair, and maintain all components of a building’s plumbing systems. This includes assessing the condition of pipes, checking for leaks, and cleaning drains. In addition, plumbing services can provide emergency plumbing assistance when needed. They can also advise clients on how to maintain their plumbing systems between professional visits.

The plumbing industry is regulated by various government agencies to ensure safety and quality. Plumbers must pass a licensing exam and obtain a certification to practice their trade. They must also adhere to local and national building codes when installing or repairing plumbing fixtures. These codes are designed to protect consumers from unsafe practices and promote environmental conservation.

Leaking faucets, clogged drains, and low water pressure are just a few of the many issues that can arise from poor plumbing maintenance. These problems can lead to costly repairs and inconvenient disruptions to daily life. Preventative plumbing maintenance can reduce these problems and help homeowners and business owners save money. For example, a simple fix like a dripping faucet can significantly reduce water waste and lower utility bills. Other examples of cost-saving maintenance include installing water flow meters and maintaining proper fixture ratios.